Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart
Institut für Verbrennungstechnik, DLR-VT
DLR is the German National Aerospace Research Centre as well as the German Space Agency. DLR’s mission comprises the exploration of the Earth and the Universe, research for the conservation of the environment, for environment-compatible technologies, for promoting mobility, communication, and safety. DLR operates major research institution facilities for DLR’s own projects and as a service provider for clients and partners. Approximately 6600 people are employed in total in DLR’s 29 institutes at 13 locations distributed over Germany, including Stuttgart and Köln.
The Institute of Combustion Technology is using synergies from the groups ‘Advanced Diagnostics’, ‘Chemical Kinetics’, ‘Numerical Simulation’ all working on research spanning from fundamental to technical combustion. The institute coordinated the European FP5 project SiA-TEAM on soot formation in aeroengines and was/is involved in a large number of European Research Projects in the sectors aeronautics and energy. The activities of the Institute of Combustion Technology are in the fields of combustion instability, pollutant formation, spray combustion, alternative fuels as well as combustor systems. It possesses a variety of laser systems and high pressure rigs (up to 100 bar). Among the available measuring techniques are Rayleigh-scattering, spontaneous Raman-scattering, CARS, LIF, multi-photon fluorescence, extinction/absorption methods, and LII. For the numerical simulation of unsteady and steady turbulent combustion, the 3D-CFD-Code THETA (developed in-house) for unstructured grids is available. Computer resources available at the institute comprise modern powerful Linux-clusters as well as the access to HPC facilities located at Stuttgart, Karlsruhe and Jülich.
DLR-VT Homepage: http://www.dlr.de/VT/
Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ)
Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung, IEK-2
The research field advanced power plants is carried out by the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-2). Major projects in this research field focus on the development and characterisation of high temperature Materials for advanced power plants with combined cycle technology and with steam technology with supercritical steam parameters, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and plasma facing materials for future fusion devices. The work is carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners to bring the technology developed into the market.
For more than ten years, hot gas chemistry is a major topic at IEK-2. Within several national and European projects, the release of trace elements, hot gas chemistry, chemical hot gas cleaning, high temperature corrosion and slagging and fouling in coal and biomass based conversion systems has been investigated. The determination of thermo-chemical and thermo-physical data of complex systems or reduced model systems as well as data assessment and thermodynamic model calculations were mostly part of the investigations. By way of example, different slags from coal gasification are subject of investigation in the project HotVeGas (BMWi 0327773C). One result of this project is the slag database covering the oxides SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O.
The mass spectrometric equipment established at IEK-2 is unique in Europe. The two molecular beam mass spectrometer systems (MBMS) enable a complete on-line analysis of hot gases with emphasis on inorganics, including condensable and meta-stable gaseous species, at temperatures up to 1600 °C. In addition to the MS systems all analytical devices necessary for the project are available at IEK-2, e.g. KEMS, DTA, DSC, HT/HP-Microscopy, and HT/HP-Viscosimetry. FactSage will be used for thermodynamic calculations. Several commercial data basis (e.g. Fact, SGTE) are available.
FZJ IEK-2 Homepage: http://www.fz-juelich.de/iek/iek-2/
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
Institut für Technische Chemie, ITC
The Institute for Technical Chemistry, ITC has its key competence in the field of thermal processes for solid and liquid fuels and in gas cleaning. Based on a long tradition in solid fuel combustion, today’s research topics are pyrolysis and gasification of solid and liquid fuels.
The theoretical and experimental research work of the division “Gasification Technology” of ITC is focused on high pressure entrained flow gasification processes for biomass based and fossil fuels. In the frame of KIT´s bioliq®-process, special emphasis is put on the entrained flow gasification of biomass based slurry, i.e. solid coke suspended in a liquid matrix. The research objective is the detailed understanding and mathematical description of the physico-chemical process steps of the conversion of a multi-phase fuel under high pressure gasification conditions. Experimental work is carried out e.g. at the lab-scale atmospheric research entrained flow gasifier, REGA for the thermo-chemical conversion of slurry and in the world wide unique pressurized atomization test rig, PAT for the atomization of high-viscous liquid fuels under high pressure. Numerical simulation tools (Aspen, Chemkin, Fluent) are applied for interpretation of experimental results and mathematical description of the multi-phase conversion processes.
The world wide recognized very successful scientific work of the institute is based on the expertise of the multidisciplinary staff comprising experts from various scientific and technical sectors and the opportunity to do experimental investigations in a broad range of scales from laboratory through semi-technical set-ups and pilot plants up to full scale plants. This unique combination guarantees for a good balance of basic research and application oriented development.
KIT / ITC Homepage: http://www.itc-tab.kit.edu/
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
Engler-Bunte Institut, EBI ceb
Fuel conversion and processing technologies are the major fields of research for the department “Fuel Technology” of the Engler-Bunte-Institut (EBI-CEB). Research work is focused on the characterization of fossil and biogenic fuels with respect to process engineering applications, fuel conversion and conditioning technologies for the up-grading of low-grade fuels and their application in energy conversion processes. These topics are closely linked to fuel-related pollution control processes.
The EBI ceb has a world wide recognized expertise in gas related processes and technical applications. It has a well known reputation in the field of gas analysis, especially of sulfur and other trace components. The EBI ceb provides advice to and closely cooperates with the DVGW (German Association for Gas and Water) which defines standards for public gas distribution and supply as well as applications in Germany.
Regarding renewable fuels, process analysis and optimization of biogas production as well as thermal biomass gasification processes are fields of research; the projects cover theoretical issues and experimental work using lab scale facilities and on-site retrieved data of production plants. As an example, a laboratory test rig for entrained flow gasification of liquid fuels is in use, which allows for basic research on the formation of soot under gasification conditions. Well established methods for thermal analysis at high temperatures using thermogravimetry, TGA where further developed and refined to the needs of biomass gasification. The experimental setup will be up-graded by the acquisition of a magnetic suspension balance for basic research on the thermal gasification of biomass and fossil fuels at elevated pressure and temperatures above 1000 °C. Together with the well-equipped fuel laboratory, the long lasting experience in fuel analysis and the experts at hand, EBI ceb is well-provided for gasification research.
EBI/ceb Homepage: http://ceb.ebi.kit.edu/
Technische Universität Clausthal
Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik (IEVB)
Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology (IEVB-Institute) at the Clausthal University of Technology is based on two professorships; the chair for Process Energy and Energy Management (R. Weber) and the chair for Technical Thermodynamics and Fuel Technology (R. Scholz). The Institute focuses on the development and optimization of environmentally friendly processes that require conversion and transfer of energy. The strategy of the IEVB combines fundamental and applied research methods with 30% and 70% split, respectively.
The Institute possesses a variety of lab-scale and semi-industrial scale research rigs as well as a state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) lab. Mathematical modelling of industrial processes is an essential part of the IEVB-Institute’s activities and, to this end, Power Generating, Glass Making and Steel-Making industries stay in focus. In the context of this proposal the recent scientific cooperation with KIT in the field of gasification of low grade fuels is of a particular importance.
TUC, IEVB Homepage: http://www.ievb.tu-clausthal.de/
Lehrstuhl für Wärme- und Stoffübertragung (WSA)
Within the last 15 years, WSA has gained significant experience and competence in pulverised coal combustion for different atmospheres comprising atmospheric and pressurized combustion with air as well as atmospheric combustion under oxyfuel conditions.
Two research projects (EU- and BMWi-funded) focusing on pressurized combustion using air, have revealed insight into the combustion of different coals accompanied by development and validation of pyrolysis models for use within CFD-modelling. Approx. 15 PhD theses have been carried out within this research area, whilst these efforts were accompanied by a specific lecture for graduate students generating knowledgeable young engineering professionals.
Starting in 2004, WSA has been leading a joint research group of 6 RWTH institutes and 6 industrial partners within the German COORETEC initiative.
In the course of this project a novel oxyfuel power plant process based on MIEC membranes for oxygen delivery has been developed. WSA specific tasks were investigation of combustion and hot gas cleaning as well as process simulation. For the combustion process a unique test facility enabling hot flue gas recirculation has been erected and operated. As oxyfuel flames tend to become unstable compared to standard air combustion conditions, specific knowledge for flame stabilisation and combustion behaviour was gained and finally led to patenting the process of burning pulverised coal at various oxygen concentrations by using a swirl stabilised burner.
For the CFD-modelling new char and pyrolysis kinetic models were needed. To obtain kinetical data in different atmospheres for model validation a small scale fluidized bed reactor has been developed. This reactor will be used for the experimental investigations within the frame of the proposed project.
Biomass conversion to coal-like solid fuels has been addressed by torrification investigations, which have led to projects with industrial partners.
RWTH, WSA Homepage: http://www.wsa.rwth-aachen.de/
Energy research Center of the Netherlands (ECN)
The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) is the leading institute for energy research in the Netherlands. ECN carries out basic and applied research in the fields of renewable energy sources, fossil fuels, environmental aspects of energy supply, policy studies, and the development and application of new materials. ECN Biomass, Coal & Environmental research is (besides environmental research) dedicated to R&D on the thermal conversion of biomass, waste, and coal into power, heat and gaseous & liquid fuels. A staff of 60 people, of which more than half are academics are working on various subjects in the bioenergy field. For more than ten years, ECN has addressed various aspects of the thermal conversion (combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) of biomass and waste in a broad range of national and international projects for government and industry. The expertise of the biomass group of ECN is focused on thermal conversion of biomass and waste, both theoretically and experimentally. A large number of experimental facilities (combustion, gasification, torrefaction, pyrolysis, gas cleaning, catalytic synthesis) are in use for tests both at lab-scale and pilot-scale.
ECN Homepage: http://www.ecn.nl/nl/
Institute for Heat and Furnace Technology
The Royal Institute of Technology (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, http://www.kth.se/), KTH, Sweden, was founded in 1827 and is the largest of Sweden’s universities of technology. Education and research cover a broad spectrum – from natural sciences to all the branches of engineering as well as architecture, industrial engineering and management, urban planning, work science and environmental engineering. In addition to the research carried out by KTH’s Schools, a large number of both national and local Competence Centres are located at KTH. Various research foundations also finance a number of research programmes.
Division of Energy and Furnace Technology -EFT( http://web.mse.kth.se/energy/) headed by Professor W. Blasiak, is one of the members of KTH-energy centre, comprised a team of researchers and research students actively working in various aspects of energy conversion technologies in order to minimize the environmental impact. With the close collaboration of various industries and financing agencies, the EFTs areas of research activities are diversified to the following areas; clean combustion technologies (i.e., High Temperature Air Combustion, HiTAC), gasification (High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification, HTAG), waste incineration, energy efficiency, conservation and the process mathematical modeling, and molecular modeling using density Function theory basing on Quantum Mechanism for biomass. In particular, gasification of biomass and solid waste with high-temperature air/steam is the major ongoing project funded by Swedish Energy Agency and industries.
KTH, EFT Homepage: http://www.kth.se/en/itm/inst/mse/research/energy-furnance-technology/
Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research centre for natural sciences and technology. PSI collaborates with national and international universities, other research institutions and industry in the areas of solid-state research and materials sciences, particle physics, life sciences, energy research and environmental research. PSI concentrates on basic and applied research, particularly in those fields which are at the leading edge of scientific knowledge, but also contribute to the training of the next generation and pave the way to sustainable development of society and economy. The Institute is actively involved in the transfer of new discoveries into industry, and offers, as an international centre of competence, its services to external organizations.
PSI employs 1400 members of staff, making it the largest of the national research institutions – and the only one of its kind within Switzerland. It develops, builds and operates complex large scale research facilities that impose particularly high requirements in terms of knowledge, experience and professionalism. PSI is one of the world’s leading user laboratories for the national and international scientific community.
The Combustion Research Laboratory (CRL) at the Paul Scherrer Institute investigates the fundamentals of industrially relevant combustion & gasification systems. The lab employs 30+ persons in 4 organizational units with a focus on high-efficiency, low emission energy conversion systems such as gas turbines and internal combustion engines. For the integration of solid fuel feedstock (like biomass) gasification systems and product gas cleaning & synthesis processes are being studied. A specifically strong knowledge base & expertise has been accumulated on laser-based non-intrusive techniques as well as for extractive diagnostic tools applicable to high pressure/high temperature environments and to catalytic systems for ultra-low emissions and synthesis of substitute natural gas.
PSI, CRL Homepage: http://crl.web.psi.ch/